## William Revelle

Professor of Psychology
Department of Psychology
Northwestern University
Evanston, Illinois, USA 60208

Telephone: 847-491-7700
Office: 315 Swift Hall
Email: revelle@northwestern.edu

## Psychology 405: Psychometric Theory

### Texts:

Sizable portions of several texts will be assigned.

# See the old syllabus for more detail

 405 Spring 2017 Outline: Last revised April 11, 2017 Week Domain Readings Additional Course Notes Problem sets Week 1 I. IDs and experimental psychology Chapter 1: the role of measurement Chapter 2 : Theory of data Overview Theory of Data Getting started with R homework #1 with answers II. Models of measurement Chapter 3: The problem of scale metric properties and the problems of scale also see the overall week 1 notes (above) descriptive homework with answers Week 2 Correlation and regression (revised) Variance/Covariance Chapter 4: Correlation Appendix D: Review of Matrix Algebra Notes reviewing matrix algebra (revised) John Fox's review of matrices Using R for statistics An even shorter guide to R Appendix-A: Using R Appendix-B: R - commands Chapter 3: The problem of scale problem set 2 (using R) the problems include the answers More regression examples Week 3 Correlation and regression (revised) Chapter 5 Multiple Correlation Regression using R Multiple and partial correlation--alternative models simple regression problem answers Week 4 III. Latent variable models Chapter 6: Constructs, Components and Factors Factor analysis (revised notes) Factor analysis (original notes) factor and principal components analysis Examples of using R to do factor analysis Simplex structures and item difficulty criteria for number of factors clustering procedures Week 6 IV. Test theory Chapter 7: Classical Test theory Reliability (New) Reliability (revised) (notes) classical approaches domain sampling latent trait/item response More on reliability (revised) reliability hw reliability hw answers even more readable aswers Week 6 B. Validity (predictive and construct) Midterm midterm sample Week 6 validity + reliability = structural models C. Structural Models (conceptual introduction to causal models) Scoring a test (an example) Week 7 D. Test Construction empirical Homogenous keying clustering procedures factor and principal components analysis Examples of using R to do factor analysis Simplex structures and item difficulty criteria for number of factors rational scale construction (revised) scale construction: an example Week 8 Personality Taxonomies The data box Structural Equation Modeling EFA and CFA causality? Supplementary (excessive?) reading sem.chapter 3 sem.chapter 4 sem.chapter 5 sem.chapter 6 slides slides Week 9 Summary of Psychometric theory Week 10 Review

### 405: Psychometric Theory: Class handouts

Overview Also available as a pdf))

### Prerequisites:

Some basic familiarity with each of the following areas is highly recommended. Relevant readings are:
• 1) Individual Differences:
• Eysenck, H.J. and Eysenck, M.W. (1985) Personality and individual differences: a natural science approach. Plenum: New York.
• Willerman, L. (1979) The Psychology of Individual and Group Differences, San Francisco: Freeman.
• Tyler, L.E. (1965.) The psychology of human differences. NY ACC.
• Anastasi, A. ( 1958) Differential Psychology. NY Macmillan.
• Lubinski, D.J. and Dawis, R.V. (Eds.) (1995). Assessing individual differences in human behavior: new concepts, methods, and findings. Davies-Black, Palo Alto.
• Hampson, S.E. and Colman, A.M. (Eds.), (1995). Individual differences and personality. Longman Group, London.
• Saklofske, D H and Zeidner, M (Ed). (1995) International handbook of personality and intelligence. Plenum, New York.
• Eysenck, M.W. Individual differences: normal and abnormal. Erlbaum, Hove, England.
• Jonassen, D H; Grabowski, B L. (Eds). (1993) Handbook of individual differences, learning, and instruction. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.
• Detterman, D. K(Ed). (1993) Individual differences and cognition, Ablex, Norwood, N.J.
• Tests and Measurements:
• Cronbach, L.J. ( 1983.) Fundamentals of psychological testing, NY Harper.
• Anastasi, A. (1988) Psychological Testing (6th ed). NY, Macmillan.
• Nunnally, J.C., Jr. (1972) Introduction to Psychological Measurement. NY: McGraw-Hill.
• Aiken, L. R. ( 1997) Psychological Testing and Assessment (9th Ed.)Boston. Allyn and Bacon.
• 3) Statistics: Almost any undergraduate course or text.
• 4) Mathematics: Although the level of presentation generally assumes no more than algebra, familarity with calculus and matrix algebra is helpful. If it has been several years since you have done any work with algebraic manipulations, especially those involving summations, it would be useful to review an undergraduate statistics book to refresh your skill in algebra.

How to view the reading list:

This reading list can be seen as a general set of readings about psychometric theory and personality assessment. Not all of the readings are equally important. References in bold face are considered important and are well worth reading. The other readings are useful background if you want to explore a particular area in more depth. Except for Nunnally and Bernstein, the items on the reading list are not expected to be read for this course. Most of the items are meant to supplement your understanding of each particular area.

In general, the more you understand Nunnally and Bernstein, the more you will understand the lectures. Similarly, the more you ask questions in class, the more you will understand Nunnally and Bernstein. The purpose of understanding Nunnally and Bernstein, of course, is that the more you understand the more you will be able to apply fundamental principles of measurement to your own research. It is the basic assumption of this course that all research can be improved by improving the quality of measurement used in that research.

General Comment:

Questions are encouraged. Remember, you probably are just as confused as your colleagues. Do not believe that you are the only person who does not understand. The overriding purpose of this course is to help you understand the fundamentals of measurement and personality assessment. Please ask questions if you do not understand. In the unlikely case that you are the only person who does not understand something, then see me after class or during office hours for further help.

Some of the lectures are supplemented on the web with links from the syllabus. Also use the Psych Lit and the Social Science Citation Index search engines.

### General References

• 1) Buros, O.K. The Mental Measurements Yearbooks.
Third (1949), Fourth (1953), Fifth (1959), Sixth (1965), Seventh (1972), Eight (1978). (and later publications of the Buros institute.) Reviews of almost all published tests.
• Tests in Print. The Buros Institute for Mental Measurements, Lincoln, NE. 4th ed. (1994).
• Mental Measurements Yearbook The Buros Institute for Mental Measurements, Lincoln, NE. 11th ed. (1992).
• Standards for educational and psychological testing. (1985). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
• 2) From the Annual Review of Psychology
• Bollen, K.A. (2002) Latent variables in psychology and the social sciences.
• Wickens, T.D. (1998) Categorical data analysis, 49, 537-558.
• Bentler, P.M. & Dudgeon, P. Covariance Structure Analysis: Statistical Practice, Theory, and Directions, 46, 1996.
• Butcher, J.N. and Rouse, S.V. (1987) Personality: Individual differences and clinical assessment. 47, 87-111.
• Revelle, W. Personality processes , 46, 1995.
• Ozer, D. J. & Reise, S. P. Personality assessment, 45, 1994.
• Sechrest, L. & Figueredo, A. J., Program Evaluation, 44, 1993.
• Arabie, P. & Hubert, L. J. Combinatorial data analysis, 43, 1992.
• Wiggins, J. S. & Pincus, A. L. Personality: Structure and Assessment, 43, 1992.
• Schmidt, F. L., Ones, D. S., & Hunter, J. E. Personnel selection, 43, 1992.
• Widiger, T. A. & Trull, T. J., Diagnosis and clinical assessment, 42, 1991.
• Digman, J. M. Personality Structure: emergence of the five-factor model, 41, 1990.
• Jones, L. V. & Appelbaum, M. Psychometric methods, 40, 1989.
• Gescheider, G. A. Psychophysical scaling, 39, 1988.
• Cook, T. D. & Shadish, W. R. Jr. Program evaluation: the worldly science, 37, 1986.
• Anastasi, A. Evolving concepts of test validation, 37, 1986.
• Hakel, M. D. Personnel selection and placement, 37, 1986.
• Robins, L.N. & Helzer, J.E. Diagnosis and clinical assessment: the current state of psychiatric diagnosis, 37, 1986.
• Traub, R.E. & Lam, Y.R. Latent Structure and item sampling models for testing. 36, 1985.
• Young, F. W. Scaling, 35, 1984.
• Lanyon, R.I. Personality Assessment. 35, 1984.
• Zedeck, S. and Cascio, W.F. Psychological Issues in Personnel Decisions. 35, 1984.
• Rorer, L.G. & Widiger, T.A. Personality Structure and Assessment. 34, 1983.
• Eysenck, H.J., Wakefield, J.A., & Friedman, A.F. Diagnosis and Clinical Assessment. 34, 1983.
• Weiss, D.J. & Davison, M.L. Test Theory and Methods. 33, 1982.
• Wainer, H. and Thissen, D. Graphical Data Analysis, 32, 1981.
• Weiss, D.J. and Davison, M.L. Test Theory and Methods. 32, 1981.
• Bentler, P.M. Multivariate Analysis with Latent Variables: Causal Modeling. 31, 1980.
• Carroll, J.D. and Arabie, P. Multidimensional Scaling. 31, 1980.
• Jackson, D.N. and Paunonen, S.V. Personality Structure and Assessment. 31, 1980.
• Carroll, J.B. and Maxwell, S.E. Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities. 30, 1979.
• Lumsden, J. Test theory. 27, 1976.
• Goldberg, L. Objective diagnostic tests and measures. 25, 1974.
• Edwards, A. Personality: Theory and techniques of assessment. 24, 1973
• Molish, B. Projective methodologies. 23, 1972.
• Bock, R.D. Test Theory. 22, 1971.
• Fiske, D.W. and Pearson, P.H. Theory and technique of Personality measurement. 21, 1970.
• Wiggins, J. Personality structure. 19, 1968.
• Klein, G.S. Barr, H.L. & Wolitzky, D.L. Personality. 18, 1967.
• Fisher, S. Projective methologies. 18, 1967.
• Holtzman, W.H. Personality Structure. 16, 1965.
• Mulholland, J.E. Theory and techniques of assessment. 15, 1964.
• Christie, R. and Lindauer, F. Personality structure. 14, 1963.
• Messick, S. Personality structure. 12, 1961.
• DuBois, P.H., Individual Differences. 11, 1960.
• Loevinger, J. Theory and techniques of assessment. 10, 1959.
• Kelly, G.A. Theory and techniques of assessment. 9 1958.
• Jenkins, J.J. and Lykken, D.T. Individual differences. 8, 1957.
• Cronbach, L.J. Assessment of individual differences. 7, 1956.
• Kelly, E.L. Theory and technique of assessment. 5, 1954.
• 3. Periodicals
• 4. General Texts:
• Lord, F.M. & Novick, M.R.(1968) Statistical theories of mental test scores. Reading, Ma: Addison-Wesley.
• Eysenck, H.J. (1970) The structure of human personality (3rd ed.) London:Methuen.
• Vernon, P.E. (1963) Personality Assessment: A critical survey. London: Methuen.
• Cattell, R.B. (1973) Personality and mood by questionaire. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
• Cattell, R.B. (1957) Personality and motivation: structure and measurement. Yonkers-on-Hudson: World Book Co.
• Cattell, R.B. (1966) Handbook of Multivariate experimental psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally.
• Cattell, R.B. and Kline, P.(1977) The Scientific Analysis of Personality and Motivation. London: Academic Press.
• Jensen, A.R. (1980) Bias in mental tests. New York: Free Press.
• Herrnstein, R. J. & Murray, C. (1994) The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life. Free Press.
• Loehlin, J.C. (1994)Latent variable models: an introduction to factor, path, and structural analysis. Hillsdale, N.J.: LEA. (2nd Ed.)
• Pervin, LA. (Ed.). (1990a). Handbook of Personality: theory and research. New York: Guilford.
• 5. Special Issues:
• Lowman, R. L (1996) What every psychologist should know about assessment. Psychological Assesment, 8.
• Glaser, R. and Bond, L.(1981) Testing: Concepts, Policy, Practice, and Research. American Psychologist, 36.
• Green, B.F. A primer of testing. American Psychologist, 1981, 36, 1001-1011.
• Carroll, J.B. and Horn, J.L. (1981) On the scientific basis of ability testing. American Psychologist, 36, 1012-1020.
• Bias in mental testing. Comments on Jensen. Behavioral and Brain Science, 1981.
• Rorer, LG. (1990). Personality Assessment: A Conceptual Survey. In LA Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 693-720). New York: Guilford.

## Course Outline and Associated Readings

I. Individual differences and experimental psychology: The role of assessment.
• Cronbach, L.J. (1957) The two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 12, 671-684.
• Cronbach, L.J. (1975) Beyond the two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 30, 116-127.
• Vale and Vale. (1969) Individual differences and general laws in psychology: a reconciliation. American Psychologist, 24, 1093-1108.
• Eysenck, H.J. (1966) Personality and experimental psychology. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 19, 1-28.
• Eysenck, H.J. (1997)Personnality and experimental psychology: The unification of psychology and the possibility of a paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73 , 1224-1237.
II. Models of Measurement
• A. Levels of measurement
• Nunnally and Bernstein: Chapter 1, pp. 3-30
• B. Types of data
• Coombs, C. (1964) A Theory of Data. NY: Wiley & Sons, Ch. 1 & 2.
• C. Scaling models
• Nunnally and Bernstein: Chapter 2, pp. 31-82
• Maxwell, S.E. & Delany, H.D. (1985) Measurement and statistics: an examination of construct validity. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 85-93.
• Gescheider, G. A. (1988) Psychophysical scaling, Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 169-200.
• Young, F. W. (1984) Scaling, Annual Review of Psychology,35, 55-81.
• D. Basic concepts: Variance, covariance, and correlation
• Nunnally and Bernstein: Chapters 4 & 5, pp. 114-208.
• Wiggins: Chapter 1, pp. 7-50
• Cohen, J & Cohen, P. (1983) Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd ed. Hillsdale, N.J. Erlebaum.
• Dawes, R. and Corrigan, B. (1974) Linear models in decsion making. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 95-106.
III. Test Theory and Practice
• A. Reliability
• 1. Classical Test Theory
• Nunnally and Bernstein: Chapter 6, pp. 211-247
• Gulliksen, H. (1950)Theory of mental tests. NY: Wiley, Chapter 2, pp. 4-27.
• Lord, F.M. & Novick, M. R. (1968) Statistical theories of mental test scores. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Chapter 3, pp. 55-81.
• 2. Assessment of reliability
• Nunnally and Bernstein: Chapter 7, pp. 248-92.
• Wiggins: Chapter 7, pp. 277-327.
• Cronbach, L.J. (1951) Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.
• Revelle, W. (1979) Hierarchical cluster analysis and the internal structure of tests. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 14, 57-74.
• 3. Domain sampling and generalizability theory
• Tryon, R.C. (1957) Reliability and behavior domain validity: Reformulation and historical critique. Psychological Bulletin., 54, 229-249.
• Cronbach, L.J. et al. (1963) A liberalization of reliability theory. British Journal of Statistical Psychology, 16, 137-163.
• Cronbach, L.J., Gleser, G.C., Nanda, H. & Rajaratnam, N. (1972) The dependability of behavioral measurements: theory of generalizability for scores and profiles, NY: Wiley.
• 4. Latent trait theory -- Item Response Theory
• Embretson, S.E. (1996) The new rules of measurement. Psychological Assessment, 8.
• Reckase, M.D. (1996) Test construction in the 1990s: Recent approaches every psychologist should know. Psychological Assessment, 8.
• Rasch, Georg (1960/1980) Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
• Traub, R.E. & Lam, Y.R. (1985) Latent Structure and item sampling models for testing. Annual Review of Psychology, 36.
• Weiss, D.J. and Davison, M.L. (1981) Test Theory and Methods. Annual Review of Psychology, 32,1.
• Lumsden, J. Test theory. (1976) Annual Review of Psychology ,27.
• Lord, F.M. (1980) Application of item repsonse theory to practical testing problems. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
• Hulin, C. L., Drasgow, F. & Parsons, C.K. (1983) Item response theory: application to psychological measurement. Homewood,Il: Dow Jones-Irwin.
• Birnbaum, A. (1968) Some latent trait models and their use in inferring an examinee's ability. In F. M. Lord and M. R. Novick, Statistical theories of mental test scores. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
• Andrich, D. (1978) Relationships between the Thurstone and Rasch approaches to item scaling. Applied Psychological Measurement, 2, 449-460.
• Wainer, H., Fairbank, D.T. & Hough, R.L.(1978) Predicting the impact of simple and compound life change events. Applied Psychological Measurement, 2, 311-320.
• Waller, N. G., Tellegen, A., McDonald, R. P., & Lykken, D. T. (1996). Exploring nonlinear models in personality assessment: Development and preliminary validation of a Negative Emotionality scale. Journal of Personality, 64, 545-576.
• B. Validity
• 1. Classical Approaches
• Nunnally and Bernstein: Chapter 3, pp. 83-113.
• American Psychological Association. (1985) Standards for educational and psychological tests and manuals. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
• 2. Construct validity
• Cronbach, L.J. and Meehl, P.E.(1955) Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281-302.
• Loevinger, J. (1957) Objective tests as instruments of psychological theory. Psychological Reports, 3, 635-694. Monograph Supplement 9.
• Campbell, D.T. and Fiske, D.W. (1959) Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105.
• Bechtoldt, H.P. (1959) Construct validity: A critique. American Psychologist, 14 , 619-629.
• Campbell, D.T. (1960) Recommendations for APA test standards regarding construct, trait, and discriminant validity. American Psychologist, 15, 546-533.
• 3. Virtues and varieties of cross validation
• Cureton, E.E. (1950) Validity, reliability, and boloney. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 10, 94-96.
• Mosier, C.I. (1951) Problems and designs of cross validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 11, 5-11.
• Cureton, E E., Cronbach, Lee J.,Meehl, Paul E, Ebel, Robert L. et al. (1996) in Ward, Stoker, Murray-Ward (Eds.) Educational measurement: Origins, theories, and explications, Vol. 1: pp. 125-243,University Press of America, Lanham, MD.
• 4. Validity for what? Predictions and decision making.
• Wiggins: Chapters 2, 3, 6, pp. 51-80, 224-227.
• Sechrest, L. (1963) Incremental validity. Educational and Psychological Measurement..
• Norman, W.T. (1963) Personality measurement, faking and detection: an assessment method for use in personnel selection. Journal of Applied Psychology, 47, 225-241.
• Clinical versus actuarial decision making
• Dawes, R.M. Faust, D. & Meehl, P. (1989) Clinical versus actuarial judgment Science, 243, 1668-1674.
• Dawes, R.M.
• 5. Issues in test bias
• Cleary, T.A., Humphreys, L.G., Kendrick, S.A., & Wesmer, A. (1975) Educational uses of tests with disadvantaged students. American Psychologist, 30, 15-41.
• Cole, N.S. (1981) Bias in testing. American Psychologist, 36, 1067-1077.
• Flaugher, R.L. (1978) The many definitions of test bias. American Psychologist, 33, 671-679.
• Jensen, A.R. (1980) Bias in mental tests. New York: Free Press.
• Anastasi, A. (1986) Evolving concepts of test validation, Annual Review of Psychology, 37.
• C. Reliability + Validity = Structural Models
• 1. Methods
• 2. Applications
• Cole DA, Martin JM, Powers B, Truglio R (1996) Modeling causal relations between academic and social competence and depression: A multitrait-multimethod longitudinal study of children Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105,. 258-270.
• 3. Controversy
• Cliff, Norman (1983) Some cautions concerning the application of causal modeling methods Multivariate Behavioral Research. Vol 18 115-126.
• Martin, J.A. (1982) Application of structural modeling with latent variables to adolescent drug use: a reply to Huba, Wingard, and Bentler. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 598-603.
• Huba, G.J. and Bentler, P.M. (1982) On the usefulness of latent variable causal modeling in testing theories of naturally occuring events (including adolescent drug use): a rejoinder to Martin. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 604-611.
• D. The construction of tests
• Nunnally and Bernstein: Chapter 8, pp. 293-337
• 1. Empirical Keying
• Gulliksen, H. (1950) Theory of mental tests, NY: Wiley. Chapter 21.
• Sechrest, L., & Jackson, D.N. (1963) Deviant response tendencies: their measurement and interpretation. Educational and Psychological Measurement.
• Nunnally and Bernstein: Chapter 9,10 pp338-443 --recent advances in measurement
• 2. Homogenous keying
• A) Clustering procedures
• Loevinger, J. Gleser, G.C. & Dubois, P.H. (1953) Maximizing the discriminating power of a multiple score test. Psychometrika, 18, 309-317.
• Johnson, S.C. (1967) Hierarchical clustering systems. Psychometrika, 32, 241-254.
• Revelle, W. (1979) Hierarchical cluster analysis and the internal structure of tests. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 14, 57-74
• Revelle, W. (1978) Hierarchical cluster analysis: A warning and several suggestions. (unpublished manuscript, Northwestern University)
• B) Factor Analysis
• Nunnally and Bernstein: Chapters 11& 12, pp. 447-541.
• Loehlin, John (1987/1992) Latent Variable Models: an introduction to factor, path, and structural analysis . Hillsdale, N.J.: LEA. (reserve)
• Thurstone, L.L. The factor problem. (J & M, pp. 279-287)
• Eysenck, H.J. (1953) The logical basis of factor analysis. American Psychologist , 8, 105-134.
• Cattell, R.B. (1952)The three basic factor analytic research designs--their interrelations and derivatives. Psychological Bulletin,
• Royce, J.R. (1963) Factors as theoretical constructs. American Psychologist, 18, 522-528.
• Revelle, W. (1983). Factors are fictions and other comments on individuality theory. Journal of Personality, 51, 707-714.
• Guilford, J.P. (1952) When not to factor analyze. Psychological Bulletin, .
• Tucker, L.R. (1955) The objective definition of simple structure in linear factor analysis. Psychometrika, 1955.
• Joreskog, K.G. (1967) Some contributions to maximum likelihood factor analysis.Psychometrika, 32, 443-482.
• Harmon, H.H. (1967) Factor Analysis. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
• Mulaik, S.A. (1972) The Foundation of Factor Analysis. NY: McGraw-Hill.
• Gorsuch, R.L. (1974) Factor Analysis. Philadelphia: Sauders.
• Lawley, D.N. & Maxwell, A.E. (1971) Factor Analysis as a Statistical Method. (2nd ed.). NY: American Elsevier.
• Joreskog, K. and Sorbom, D. (1979) Advances in Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Models. Cambridge: Abt.
• Revelle, W. and Rocklin, T. (1979) Very simple structure: an alternative procedure for estimating the optimal number of interpretable factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 14, 403-414.
• Cattell, R. B. (1978) The scientific use of factor analysis in behavioral and life sciences. New York. Plenum.
• C) Confirmatory Procedures
• Nunnally and Bernstein: Chapter 13 pp 542-594
• D) Other models
• Nunnally and Bernstein: Chapter 14 pp 595-651
• Cliff, Norman. (1996) Ordinal methods for behavioral data analysis. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; Mahwah, NJ, US; xiii, 197 pp.
• Cliff, Norman (1987) Analyzing multivariate data. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc; San Diego, CA, US; xxiv, 494 pp.
• 3. Response styles
• Jackson, D.N. & Messick, S.J. (1958) Content and style in personality measurement. Psychological Bulletin, 55, 243-252.
• Rorer, L.G. (1965) The great response style myth. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 129-150.
• Campbell, D.T. Siegman, C.R., & Rees, M.R. (1967) Direction of wording effects in the relationships between scales. Psychological Bulletin, 68, 293-303.
• Block, J. (1965) The Challenge of Response Sets. NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
• Hamilton, D. (1967) Extreme Response Set, Psychological Bulletin, .
• 4. A comparison of alternative techniques for test construction
• Goldberg, L.R. (1972) Parameters of personality inventory construction and utilization: A comparison of prediction strategies and tactics. Multivariate Behavioral Research Monographs, 7, No. 2.
IV. Assessment of traits: Behavioral taxonomies
• A. Traits and taxonomies
• Nunnally: Chapters 13-15, pp. 501-626.
• Allport, G.W. (1961) Pattern and Growth in Personality. NY: Holt-Rinehart, and Winston, Chapter 14, The theory of common traits.
• Norman, W.T. (1963) Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1963, 66, 574-583.
• Digman, J.M. (1990) Personality Structure: emergence of the five-factor model,.Annual Review of Psychology, 41.
• Meehl, P. (1992) Factors and Taxa, traits and types, differences of degree and differences of kind. Journal of Personality, 60, 117-
• Mccrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the 5-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 0052, 0081-0090.
• McCrae, R. R. & John, O. P. (1992) An introduction to the five factor model and its appliations, Journal of Personality, 60, 175-.
• John, O.P. (1990). The "Big Five" factor taxonomy: Dimensions of personality in the natural language and in questionnaires. In LA Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research . New York: Guilford. (See also Big 5 references)
• B. Traits: Dimensions of personality or verbal habits?
• Mischel, W. (1969) Continuity and change in personality. American Psychologist, 24, 1012-1018.
• Mulaik, S.A. (1964) Are personality factors raters' conceptual factors? Journal of Consulting Psychology, 28, 506-611.
• Passini, F.T., & Norman, W.T. (1966) A universal conception of personality structure? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 44-49.
• Norman, W.T. & Goldberg, L.R. (1966) Raters, ratees, and randomness in personality structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 681-691.
• Romer, D., & Revelle, W. (1984). Personality traits: facts or fiction? A critique of the Shweder and D'Andrade systematic distortion hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1028-1042.
• Buss, D.M. & Craik, K.H. (1983) The act frequency approach to personality. Psychological Review, 90, 105-126.
• Block, J. (1989) Critique of the act frequency approach to personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 234-245.
• See also an abbreviated reading list describing the "Big 5" or "Five Factor Model" as well as an abbreviated reading list describing the "Even Bigger 3 fundamental" dimensions or taxonometric theories of by Peter Heineman.
• C. Importance of traits
• Green, B.F. (1978) In defense of measurement. American Psychologist, 33, 664-670.
• Mischel, W. (1977) On the future of personality measurement. American Psychologist, 32, 246-254.
• Hogan, R. DeSota, C.B., & Solano, C. (1977) Traits, tests and personality research. American Psychologist, 32, 255-264.
• Block, J. (1977) Recognizing the coherence of personality. In Magnusson, D. & Endler, N. Personality at the Crossroads. NY: Wiley.
• Epstein, S. (1980) The stability of behavior: II. Implications for psychological research. American Psychologist, 35, 790-806.
• Conley, J.J. (1984) The hierarchy of consistency: a review and model of longitudinal findings on adult individual differences in intelligence, personality, and self-opinion. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 11-26.
• Conley, J.J. (1984) Longitudinal consistency of adult personality: self-reported psychological characteristics across 45 years. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1325-1333.
• Tellegen, A., Bouchard, T. (1990) Genetic basis of personality traits. Science, .
• Buss, A.
V. Theory and practice of Attitude Measurement
• A. Attitude Theory
• Calder, B.J. & Ross, M. (1973) Attitudes and Behavior. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press.
• Calder, B.J., Phillips, L. W; Tybout, A. M. (1982) The concept of external validity Journal of Consumer Research. Vol 9(3) 240-244.
• Cook, T.M. (1969) The relationship between the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5, 12-30.
• Bagozzi, R.P. (1978) The construct validity of the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of attitudes by analysis of covariance structures. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 13, 9-31.
• Schuman, H. & Johnson, H.P. (1976) Attitudes and Behavior. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 161-207.
• B. Measurement Techniques
• Cook, S. & Selltiz, C. A multiple-indicator approach to attitude measurement. Psychological Bulletin,
• Tittle, C.R. & Hill, R.J. (1967) Attitude Measurement and the prediction of behavior. Sociometry, 30, 199-213.
• Kidder, L.H. & Campbell, D.T. (1970) The indirect testing of social attitudes. In G.F. Summers (Ed.) Attitude Measurement.
VI. Methods of observation of behavior
• A. Unobtrusive measures
• Webb, E.J. et al. (1966) Unobtrusive Measures. Chicago: Rand McNally.
• B. Peer ratings
• Wiggins: Chapters 7, 8, 9, 11, 278-442, 515-604.
• Guilford, J.P. (1954) Psychometric Methods. NY: McGraw-Hill, Chapter11, rating scales, pp. 263-301.
• C. Self report inventories
• Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., and Wrightsman, L.S.(1991) Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. Academic Press, San Diego.
• D. "Objective tests"
• Cattell, R. B. & Warburton, F. W. (1967) Objective personality and motivation tests. a theoretical introduction and practical compendium. Champaign, University of Illinois Press.
• E. Projective tests
• 1) Personal construct theory and the REP test
• Kelly, G. A. (1955) The psychology of personal constructs. Norton.
• Wish, M. Deutsch, M., & Biener, L. (1972) Differences in perceived similarity of nations. In Romney, et al. Multidimensional scaling, Vol. 2.
• 2) Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT): projective or behavior samples?
• Atkinson, J. W., Bongort, K. & Price, L. H. (1977), Explorations using computer simulations to comprehend thematic apperceptive measurement of motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 1, 1-26.
• McClelland, D. C. (1989) American Psychologist.
• F. Clinical ratings
• Wiggins: Chapters 4, 5, 122-223 sources of data versus data combination
• Faust D, Ziskin J (1988) The expert witness in psychology and psychiatry. Science 241: 31-35.
• Dawes RM, Faust D, Meehl PE. (1989) Clinical versus actuarial judgment.Science 243: 1668-1674.
• G. Agreement across modalities
• Norman, W.T. "To see oursels as ithers see us!" Relations among self-perceptions, peer-perceptions, and expected peer-perceptions of personality attributes. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1969, 4, 417-443.
• Eysenck, H. J. and Eysenck, M. W. (1985) Personality and Individual differences: a natural science approach.
• Digman, J. M. Personality Structure: emergence of the five-factor model, 41, 1990.
• John, O.P. (1990). The "Big Five" factor taxonomy: Dimensions of personality in the natural language and in questionnaires. In LA Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research . New York: Guilford. (See also Big 5 references)
VII. Personality Assessment: theory and practice
• Wiggins, J. Milestones in assessment.
• Dawes, R.M. Faust, D. & Meehl, P. (1989) Clinical versus actuarial judgment Science, 243, 1668-1674.