Personality Measures and the Big 5

Although different personality theorists have used different terms to describe the important (non-cognitive) dimensions of personality, it is possible to organize these dimensions in terms of 5 broad dimensions of personality. A useful review of the development of the Big 5 is available from Frank Fujita.. The following table has been adapted from Oliver John's excellent review in Pervin's Handbook of Personality.

Theorist/ Inventory I
Emotional Stability
Intellect/ Openness to Experience
Bales Dominant- Initiative Social- Emotional Orientation Task Orientation
Block Low Ego Control High Ego Control Ego Resiliency
Buss & Plomin EASI Activity Sociability Impulsivity (r) Emotionality (r)
Cattell 16PF Exvia (vs. Invia) Pathemia (vs. Cortertia) Super Ego Strength Adjustment vs. Anxiety Independence vs. Subduedness
Comrey CPS Extraversion and Activity Femininity Orderliness and Social Conformity Emotional Stability Rebelliousness
Costa & McCrae NEO-PI Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticsm (r) Openness
Eysenck EPQ Extraversion Psychoticism (r) Neuroticism (r)
Goldberg FFI Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness
Gough CPI Factors Extraversion Consensuality Control Flexibility
Guilford Social Activity Paranoid Disposition (r) Thinking Introversion Emotional Stability
Hogan HPI Ambition and Sociability Likeability Prudence Adjustment Intellectance
Jackson PRF Outgoing, Social Leadership Self Protective Orientation (r) Work Orientation Dependence (r) Aesthetic- Intellectual
Myers-Briggs Extraversion vs. Introversion Feeling vs. Thinking Judging vs. Perception Intuition vs. Sensing
Tellegen MPQ Positive Emotionality Constraint Negative Emotionality Absorption
Wiggins IAS Power/ Dominance Love/ Warmth
Zuckerman Extraversion Psychoticism/ Impulsivity/ Sensation Seeking (r) Neuroticism (r) P-Imp-SS
Adapted and extended from Oliver John (1990), Table 3.4: The Big 5 and dimensions of similar breadths in questionnaires and in models of personality and interpersonal behavior.

For further reading, see:

Eysenck, HJ. (1991). Dimensions of personality: 16: 5 or 3? criteria for a taxonomic paradigm. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 773-90.

Goldberg, LR. (1992). The development of markers for the big-five factor structure. Psychol. Assessment, 4, 26-42.

Goldberg, LR (1993a). The structure of phenotypic personality traits. Am. Psychol., 48, 26-34.

Goldberg, LR. (1993b). The structure of personality traits: vertical and horizontal aspects. In DC Funder, RD Parke, C Tomlinson-Keasey, & K Widaman (Eds.), Studying lives through time: personality and development (pp. 169-88). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

John, OP. (1990). The "Big Five" factor taxonomy: Dimensions of personality in the natural language and in questionnaires. In LA Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research . New York: Guilford.

Revelle, W. (1995). Personality Processes, Annual Review of Psychology.

Zuckerman, M. (1991). Psychobiology of personality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zuckerman, M. (1994). Impulsive unsocialized sensation seeking: The biological foundations of a basic dimension of personality. In JE Bates & TD Wachs (Eds.), Temperament: Individual differences at the interface of biology and behavior (pp. 219-55). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

For a more complete list of references to the "Big 5" or the "Five Factor Model", see the section on taxonomies in John Johnson's syllabus for Personality Theory . A series of challengesto trait theory in general have appeared over the years as have specific critiques and defenses of the Five Factor model have appeared in Psychological Bulletin and elsewhere.
Prepared as part of The Personality Project