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Personality and the environment interact in complex ways. For example, personality characteristics may influence the roles that one chooses, and those roles may influence personality in turn. A recent study (Jackson, Thoemmes, Jonkman, Lü dtke, and Trautwein, 2012) appearing in the March 2012 issue of Psychological Science examined this kind of interplay in the context of military service. Big-Five traits were assessed in a longitudinal sample of 1,261 German males starting in their final year of high school. It was determined that those lower in agreeableness, neuroticism, and openness to experience were more likely to enlist in military service. It was also found that military training was related to decreased levels of agreeableness compared to a control group of individuals who did not enlist in the military, and that those changes were still endured 5 years after training.
Jackson, Joshua J., Thoemmes, Felix, Jonkmann, Kathrin, Lü dtke, Oliver, & Trautwein, Ulrich. (2012). Military Training and Personality Trait Development. Psychological Science, 23(3), 270-277. doi: 10.1177/0956797611423545