Appendix: Additional Information

The linked documents provide additional information to the studies reported in Rafaeli, E. & Revelle, W. (2006). A premature consensus: Are happiness and sadness truly opposite affects? Motivation and Emotion.


This appendix is broken into multiple sections. Click on the relevant section for additional details.

Text sections

Section 1: Study 1- simulation code.

Section 2: Study 1- simulation method and results.

Section 3: Study 2- additional correlation and EFA results.

Section 4: Study 2- additional CFA description.


Table A-1: Study 2- Affect terms, factor loadings, communalities, angular location, and item characteristics.



Figure A-1: Study 1- VSS Results.

Figure A-2: Study 2- Correlations of all items with happy and sad.

Figure A-3: Study 2- VSS Results.

Figure A-4: Study 2- Factor loadings of all items in a two dimensional space.

Figure A-5: Study 2- Measurement and structural model of six item clusters.

Figure A-6: Study 3- Affect levels and standard errors after mood manipulations. (Uses affect scales)

Figure A-7: Study 3- Hapiness and sadness levels and standard errors after mood manipulations. (Uses single items).


References cited in this appendix

Fox, J. (2002). An R and S-PLUS Companion to Applied Regression. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Revelle, W., & Rocklin, T. (1979). Very Simple Structure: an alternative procedure for estimating the optimal number of interpretable factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 14, 403-414.

Russell, J.A., & Carroll, J.M. (1999). On the bipolarity of positive and negative affect. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 3-30.

Steiger, JH (1980). Tests for comparing elements of a correlation matrix.
Psychological Bulletin, 87, 245-251

Thayer, R.E. (1986). Activation-Deactivation Check-list: Current overview and structural analysis. Psychological Reports, 58, 607-614.