Personality, motivation, and performance-References


Anderson, K. J. (1990). Arousal and the inverted-u hypothesis - a critique of Neiss's reconceptualizing arousal. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 96-100.

Atkinson, J. W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychological Review, 64, 359-372.

Atkinson, J.W. & Birch, D. (1970). The dynamics of action. New York: Wiley.

Atkinson, J. W & Raynor, J. O. (1974)(Eds.), Motivation and Achievement. New York: Winston (Halsted Press/Wiley).

Bakan, P.,Belton, J., & Toth, J. (1963). Extraversion-introversion and decrement in an auditory vigilance task. In D. N. Buckner & J. J. McGrath (Eds.), Vigilance: a symposium (pp. 22-33). New York: McGraw Hill.

Blodgett, H. C. (1929) The effect of the introduction of reward upon the maze performance of rats. California University Publications in Psychology, 4, 113-114.

Bowyer, P., Humphreys, M.S., & Revelle, W. (1983). Arousal and recognition memory: The effects of impulsivity, caffeine, and time on task. Personality and Individual Differences, 3, 41-49.

Broadbent, D. E. (1958). Perception and Communication. Oxford: Pergamon.

Broadbent, D.E. (1971). Decision and stress. London: Academic Press.

Broadbent, D.E. (1984) The Maltese Cross: A new simplistic model for memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 55-68.

Broadhurst, P. L. (1959). The interaction of task difficulty and motivation: The Yerkes-Dodson Law revived. Acta Psychologica, 16, 321-338.

Brown, D. R., & Veroff, J. (Ed.). (1986). Frontiers of Motivational Psychology: Essays in Honor of John W. Atkinson. Berlin: Springer.

Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3), 316-336.

Corcoran, D. W. J. (1965) Personality and the inverted-U relation. British Journal of Psychology, 56, 267-273.

Cronbach, L. J. (1957). The two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 12, 671-684.

Cronbach, L. J. (1975). Beyond the two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 30, 116-127.

Diaz, A., Gray, J. A., & Pickering, A. (1991). Maze learning and the anxious personality: the effects of punishment. Paper presented at the Oxford meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, July.

Dickman, S. J., & Meyer, D. E. (1988). Impulsivity and speed-accuracy tradeoffs in information processing. , Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 274-290.

Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure - emergence of the 5-factor model. , 41, 417-440.

Eysenck, H. J. (1952) The scientific study of personality. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Eysenck, H. J. (1966). Personality and experimental psychology. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 19, 1-28.

Eysenck, H. J. (1967). The biological basis of personality. Springfield: Thomas.

Eysenck, H. J. (1987). The place of anxiety and impulsivity in a dimensional framework. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 489-493.

Eysenck, H. J. (Ed.) (1981). A model for personality. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Eysenck, H. J. (1991). Dimensions of personality: 16: 5 or 3? criteria for a taxonomic paradigm. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(8), 773-790.

Eysenck, H. J. and Eysenck, M. W. (1985) Personality and individual differences: a natural science approach. New York, Plenum Press.

Eysenck, M. W., & Mathews, A. (1987). Trait anxiety and cognition. In H. J. Eysenck & I. Martin (Eds.), Theoretical foundations of behavior therapy (pp. 197-216). New York: Plenum.

Fagerström, K. O., & Lisper, H. O. (1977). Effects of listening to car radio, experience, and personality of the driver on subsidiary reaction time and heart rate in a long-term driving task. In R. R. Mackie (Eds.), Vigilance (pp. 73-86). New York: Plenum.

Fiske, D. W. (1949). Consistency of the factorial structures of personality ratings across different sources. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 44, 329-344.

Folkard, S. (1975). Diurnal variation in logical reasoning. British Journal of Psychology, 66, 1-8.

Folkard, S. & Monk, T.H. (1980). Circadian rhythms in human memory. British Journal of Psychology, 71, 295-307.

Folkard, S., Monk, T.H., Bradbury, R., & Rosenthal, J. (1977). Time of day effects in school children's immediate and delayed recall of meaningful material. British Journal of Psychology, 58, 45-50.

Fowles, D. C. (1980). The three arousal model: Implications of Gray's two factor learning theory for heart rate, electrodermal activity and psychopathy. Psychophysiology, 17, 87-104.

Fowles, D. C. (1987) Application of a behavioral theory of motivation to the concepts of anxiety and impulsivity. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 417-435.

Gilliland, K. (1980). The interactive effect of introversion-extraversion with caffeine-induced arousal on verbal performance. Journal of Research in Personality, 14, 482-492.

Goldberg, L.R. (1982) From ace to zombie: some explorations in the language of personality. In C.D. Spielberger and J.N. Butcher (Eds.) Advances in Personality Assessment (Volume 1). Hillsdale, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlebaum Associates. (pp. 203-234)

Gray, J. A. (1972). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extraversion: a modification of Eysenck's theory. In V. D. Nebylitsyn & J. A. Gray (Eds.), The biological basis of individual behavior New York: Academic Press.

Gray, J. A. (1981). A critique of Eysenck's theory of personality. In H. J. Eysenck (Eds.), A model for personality Springer-Verlag, Berlin:

Gray, J. A. (1982). Neuropsychological Theory of Anxiety: An investigation of the septal-hippocampal system. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gray, J. A. (1987). Perspectives on anxiety and impulsivity: A commentary. Journal of research in personality. 21, 493 - 510.

Hebb, D. O. (1955). Drives and the C.N.S. (conceptual nervous system). Psychological Review, 62, 243-254.

Hockey, R. (1979) Stress and cognitive components of skilled performance. In V. Hamilton and D.M. Warburton (eds.) Human stress and cognition (pp 141-178). Wiley, Chichester.

Hockey, G. R. J. (1986). A stress control theory of adaptation and individual differences in stress management. In G. R. J. Hockey,A. W. K. Gaillard, & M. G. H. Coles (Eds.), Energetics and human information processing (pp. 285-298). Dordrecht: Matinus Nijhoff.

Hunt, E. (1983). On the nature of intelligence. Science, 219, 141-146.

Gopher, D. (1986). In defense of resources: on structures, energies, pools and the allocation of attention. In G. R. J. Hockey,A. W. K. Gaillard, & M. G. H. Coles (Eds.), Energetics and human information processing (pp. 353-372). Dordrecht: Matinus Nijhoff.

Hockey, R. (1979). Stress and cognitive components of skilled performance. In V. Hamilton & D. M. Warburton (Eds.), Human stress and cognition Chichester: Wiley.

Hockey, G. R. J., Gaillard, A. W. K., & Coles, M. G. H. (1986). Energetics and human information processing. Dordrecht: Matinus Nijhoff.

Humphreys, M. S. & Revelle, W. (1984). Personality, motivation, and performance: A theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing. Psychological Review, 91,153-184.

Keister, E., & McLaughlin, J. (1972). Vigilance performance related to extraversion-introversion and caffeine. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 6, 5-11.

Lacey, J. L. (1967). Somatic response patterning and stress: some revisions of activation theory. In M. H. Appley & R. Trumbell (Eds.), Psychological Stress: Issues in research New York: Appleton-Century-Croft.

Larsen, R. J., & Kasimatis, M. (1990). Individual-differences in entrainment of mood to the weekly calendar. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 58(1), 164-171.

Loftus, D. A. (1990) Affect and arousal in the study of mood and memory. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, Evanston, Il.

Matthews, G. (1985). The effects of extraversion and arousal on intelligence test performance. British Journal of Psychology, 76, 479-493.

Matthews, G. (1989). Extraversion and levels of control of sustained attention. Acta Psychologica, 70(2), 129-146.

Matthews, G., Davies, D. R., & Lees, J. L. (1990). Arousal, extroversion, and individual-differences in resource availability. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 59(1), 150-168.

Matthews, G., Jones, D. M., & Chamberlain, A. G. (1989). Interactive effects of extraversion and arousal on attentional task-performance - multiple resources or encoding processes. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 56(4), 629-639.

MacLeod, C., & Mathews, A. M. (1991). Cognitive-experimental approaches to the emotional disorders. In P. Martin (Eds.), Handbook of behavior therapy and psychological science: an integrative approach (pp. 116-150). New York: Pergamon.

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the 5-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81-90.

McGaugh, J. L. (1990) Significance and rememberance: the role of neuromodulatory systems. Psychological Science, 1, 15-25.

Meyer, G. J. & Shack, J. R. (1989) Structural convergence of mood and personality: evidence for old and new directions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 691-706.

Mulder, G. (1986). The concept and measurement of mental effort. In G. R. J. Hockey,A. W. K. Gaillard, & M. G. H. Coles (Eds.), Energetics and human information processing (pp. 175-198). Dordrecht: Matinus Nijhoff.

Newman, J. P. (1987) Reaction to punishment in extraverts and psychopaths: implications for the impulsive behavior of disinhibited individuals. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 464-480.

Neuchterlein, K., Parasuraman, R., and Jiang, Q. (1983) Visual sustained attention: image degradation produces rapid sensitivity decrement over time. Science, 220, 327-329.

Nichols, S. L., & Newman, J. P. (1986). Effects of punishment on response latency in extraverts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 624-630.

Norman, W. T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 574-583.

Nugent, K. & Revelle, W. (1991) Memory biases in anxious and impulsive individuals following reward and punishment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, Illinois, May.

Pickering, A. (1991) Testing Gray's theory in human subjects. Paper presented at the bi-annual meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Oxford, July.

Pribram, K. H., & McGuinness, D. (1975). Arousal, activation and effort in the control of attention. Psychological Review, 82, 116-149.

Puchalski, M. (1988). Impulsivity, time of day, and retention interval: the effect on cognitive performance. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Northwestern University.

Rabbit, P. M. A. (1986) Models and paradigms in the study of stress effects. In G. R. J. Hockey,A. W. K. Gaillard, & M. G. H. Coles (Eds.), Energetics and human information processing (pp. 155-174). Dordrecht: Matinus Nijhoff.

Revelle, W. (1986) Motivation and efficiency of cognitive performance. In D. R. Brown & J. Veroff (Eds.), Frontiers of Motivational Psychology: Essays in Honor of John W. Atkinson (pp. 107-131). Berlin: Springer.

Revelle, W. (1987). Personality and motivation: Sources of inefficiency in cognitive performance. Journal of Research in Personality. 21, 436-452.

Revelle, W. (1989). Personality, Motivation, and Cognitive Performance. P. Ackerman, R. Kanfer, and R. Cudeck (Eds.): Learning and Individual Differences: Abilities, Motivation, and Methodology. (pp. 297-341). Erlbaum.

Revelle, W., Amaral, P. and Turriff, S. (1976) Introversion-extroversion, time stress, and caffeine: the effect on verbal performance. Science, 192, 149-150.

Revelle, W., Anderson, K.J., and Humphreys, M.S. (1987) Empirical tests and theoretical extensions of arousal based theories of personality. In J. Strelau and H.J. Eysenck (Eds.) Personality Dimensions and arousal (pp 17-36). London, Plenum.

Revelle, W., Humphreys, M.S., Simon, L., & Gilliland, K. (1980) The interactive effect of personality, time of day, and caffeine: a test of the arousal model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 109, 1-31.

Revelle, W. & Loftus, D. A. (1990) Individual differences and arousal: implications for the study of mood and memory. Cognition and emotion, 4, 209-237.

Rolls, E. T. (1990) A theory of emotion, and its application to understanding the neural basis of emotion. Cognition and emotion, 4, 161-190.

Sanders, A. F. (1983). Towards a model of stress and human performance. Acta Psychologica, 53, 61-97.

Sanders, A. F. (1986). Energetical states underlying task performance. In G. R. J. Hockey,A. W. K. Gaillard, & M. G. H. Coles (Eds.), Energetics and human information processing (pp. 139-154). Dordrecht: Matinus Nijhoff.

Sergeant, J. & van der Meere, J. (1990) Convergence of approaches in localizing the hyperactivity deficit. In Lahey, B. B. and Kazdin, A. E. (Eds). Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, Volume 13. 207-246.

Seyle, H. (1976). The Stress of Life (revised version). New York: McGraw Hill.

Snow, R. E. (1989). Cognitive-conative aptitude interactions in learning. In R. Kanfer, P. L. Ackerman, & R. Cudeck (Eds.), Abilities, motivation & Methodology: the Minnesota symposium on learning and individual differences (pp. 435-474). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Strelau, J. (1983) Temperament - personality - activity. London: Academic Press.

Strelau, J. (1985) Temperament and personality: Pavlov and beyond. In J. Strelau, F. H. Farley, & A. Gale (Eds). The biological bases of personality and behavior: psychophysiology, performance, and application (Volume 1) Washington, D. C.: Hemisphere Publishing. (pp 25-43).

Thackray, R. I.,Jones, K. N., & Touchstone, R. M. (1974). Personality and physiological correlates of performance decrement on a monotonous task requiring sustained attention. British Journal of Psychology, 65, 351-358.

Thayer, R. E. (1967). Measurement of activation through self-report. Psychological Reports, 20, 663-678.

Thayer, R. E. (1978). Toward a psychological theory of multidimensional activation (arousal). Motivation and Emotion, 2, 1-34.

Thayer, R. E. (1989). The biopsychology of mood and arousal. New York. Oxford.

Toates, F. M. &Halliday, T. R. (1980) (Eds). Analysis of motivational processes. London, Academic Press, 1980.

Venables, P. H. (1984). Arousal: an examination of its status as a concept. In M. G. H. Coles,J. R. Jennings, & &. J. P. Stern (Eds.), Psychophysiological perspectives: Festschrift for Beatrice and John Lacey (pp. 134-142). New York: Van Nostrand.

Watson, D. & Tellegen, A. (1985). Toward a consensual structure of mood. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 219-235.

Wiggins, J. S. (1979) A psychological taxonomy of trait terms: the interpersonal domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 395-412.

Wilson, G. D. (1990). Personality, time of day, and arousal. Personality and individual differences, 11, 153-168.

Yerkes, R.M. & Dodson, J.D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimuli to rapidity of habit-information. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459-482.

Zinbarg, R. & Revelle, W. (1989) Personality and Conditioning: A test of four models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(2), 301-314.

Zuckerman, M. (1991). Psychobiology of personality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

The research reported in this paper was partly supported by contract MDA903-90-C-0108 from the U.S. Army Research Institute to William Revelle and Kristen Anderson. The views, opinions, and findings contained in this report are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other official documentation.

Adapted for the web, May 29, 1995