Dimensional representations of personality dimensions have emphasized between three to seven fundamental dimensions. These dimensions are, in turn, used to organize research across different laboratories. Although there is strong agreement about the importance of Introversion/Extroversion and Emotional Stability, Psychoticism, the third factor in the "Giant 3", is seen as being composed of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness in the "Five Factor Model." The lexical work of Goldberg and Norman and their associates emphasizes a descriptive taxonomy, while the biologically driven models of Gray and Eysenck emphasize a theoretical organization of personality traits.
Social-Cognitive Approaches emphasize the effect of cognitive processes upon individual differences. Recommended readings include:
Psychoanalytic Reading Lists
- Cervone, D. & Shoda, Y. (1999) The Coherence of Personality, Guilford, New York. "This volume reveals how social-cognitive structures and processes serve as a basis of personality coherence--the unique patterns of experience and action that make each of us who we are. In doing so, the volume demonstrates how a personality theory can be built on psychology's broader foundation of knowledge about cognitive and affective systems and the interactions between persons and the sociocultural environment. Presenting novel theoretical developments from leaders in personality, social, cultural, and developmental psychology, chapters show how personality coherence arises from the ways people assign meaning to social information, gain causal agency over their lives through self-knowledge and self-reflective processes, and organize multiple life events within a framework of goals and life tasks. The book stands as the most definitive presentation to date of the social-cognitive theories of personality." (from the marketing page).
- Mischel, W, & Shoda, Y, (1997) Annual Review of Psychology.
- R.M. Young has compiled an extensive reading list of psychoanalytic theory.
- The Annual Review of Psychology has excellent review chapters on personality. Many universities have site licensed the Annual Review so that you can read it on line. If not available, most libraries will have a copy.
- The Narrative Guide to Personality by Vincent Hevern at Le Moyne College reviews the work of George Kelly and Henry Murray.
- Everett Water's pages on attachment theory provides an excellent starting place for those interested in extensions of Bowlby's and Ainsworth's theories. Phil Shaver provides a discussion of measurement issues in attachment and provides a review of the current literature.
- Chris Brand has collected a fascinating set of quotes from personality researchers about almost everything. His "Resource Manual of Quotations about the Psychology of Individual and Group Differences" includes introductory comments and quotes that range from discussions of situational versus personological approaches and discussions of the most appropriate number of dimensions of personality, to discussions of the measurement of intelligence and nature and nuture.
- A thoughtful review of multiple theories of temperament in children and adults has been prepared by Peter Heineman at the University of Omaha. This includes a very good bibliography as well as short reviews of many personality temperament inventories. Tests reviewed include many of the popular tests such as the Meyers Briggs (MBTI), the Keirsey Temperament Sorter and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory. Not reviewed, nor discussed, are those tests more frequently used by personality researchers such as the Eysenck Personality Inventory, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, or Costa and McCrae's NEO-PI-R inventory.
- Daryl Bem's guidelines for writing a Psychological Bulletin paper are of use to students and faculty.
- Bem's Writing an empirical article is also a gem of insight for students and faculty alike.
- Conversations with Neil's Brain is a fascinating online book on brain structure and function by William Calvin and George A. Ojemann.
Last modified October 8, 2004.
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